Zakharov B & Ovtsharenko V
The covering setae of ground spiders (Araneae: Gnaphosidae)
Previous study of the setae covering the opisthosoma of ground spiders shows that the morphology of the covering setae is genus-specific. The present study pursues the description of covering setae across the whole Gnaphosidae family using SEM. A detailed morphology of the setae of ground spiders (Araneae, Gnaphosidae) is presented. The six major types of covering setae recognized among gnaphosid spiders are squamose, plumose, lanceolate, pinnate, arborate and sicate setae. Squamose setae are characteristic for Micaria lenzi and Nauhea tapa. Plumose setae are more common in ground spiders and occur in the genera Drassodes, Haplodrassus, Anagraphis, Nodocion, Zelotes and the species Berlandina caspica, Nomisia aussereri, Minosiella intermedia, Sosticus loricatus, Leptodrassus memorialis, Intruda signata, Parasyrisca caucasica, Scopoides catharius, Echemoides tofo, Zimiromus medius, Encoptarthria echemophthalma, Apodrassodes trancas, Apopyllus silvestri, Hemicloea sundevalli, Zelanda erebus, Orodrassus assimilis, Callilepis nocturna and Synaphosus turanicus. The species Matua valida, Anzacia gemmea, Hypodrassodes maoricus, Homoeothele micans and Scotophaeus blackwalli have lanceolate setae. Spiders of the genus Gnaphosa have pinnate setae. Fedotovia uzbekistanica has arborate setae. The species Cesonia bilineata, Herpyllus propinquus, Litopyllus temporarius, Aphantaulax seminigra and Kishidaia conspicua have sicate setae. Some genera, such as Drassodes and Synaphosus, have a combination of different types of setae on their opisthosoma, whereas others, like Eilica sp., Laronius erawan, Urozelotes rusticus, have no covering setae on their opisthosoma at all. This study reveals the existence of different types of covering setae and provides a set of characteristics important for the classification and phylogenetic analysis of Gnaphosidae.
arborate, lanceolate, pinnate, plumose, sicate, squamose setae