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Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae)

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Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae)


Heft 40


A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri) and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa) nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus), beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps) and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps) and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps). Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.


conservation; Eastern Alps; endangering; endemism; ice age; massifs de refuge; nunataks; red list; subendemics; protection; vertical distribution